FC: Erwin Chargaff | THE LIFE OF....
1: FATHER OF GENETICS
2: FROM August 11, 1905 | He was born in Czernowitz, Austria-Hungary. He earned a doctorate in Chemistry in Vienna, but ended up in NYC. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ He married Vera Broido in 1928 and had one son named Thomas.
3: TILL June 20, 2002 | He was a biochemist who immigrated to the US during the Nazi era because he could not get academic achievements with Hitler ruling (he was Jewish). He became a biochemist at Columbia University.
4: Place of Experiment | Columbia University
5: His Experiment | With his students Chargaff collected numerous DNA samples from various organisms. Using paper chromatography they separated the DNA. The DNA that was collected was then subjected to acid, which would hydrolyze the phospodiester bonds bonds as it would cause a nuclephilic attacks on the bond and result in the backbone breaking up. When the bonds were broken, the individual nucleotides would then be separated and free to analyze. | UV spectrophotometry showed that there was no an equal amount of purine bases (Adenine and Guanine) and pyrimidine bases. (Cytosine and Thymine) Chargaff discovered through this that the concnentration of GC equals the conentration of AT.
6: FINDINGS | -created two rules that lead to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA.
7: -wrote Journal of Biological Chemistry that summarized his findings | 1) A double-stranded DNA molecule globally has percentage base pair equality: %A = %T and %G = %C
8: If a strand of DNA is 20% adenine, then how much thymine is there? A. 30% B. 20% C. 40% D. 80%
9: The two rules that helped lead to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA are: A. First and Second Equality Rule B. First and Second Genetic Rule C. First and Second Parity Rule D. First and Second Chargaff Rule
10: What is the title that Erwin Chargaff is referred to? A. Father of the Double Helix B. Father of Genetics (correct answer) C. Father of DNA D. Father of Heredity
11: CITATIONS: http://www.jbc.org/content/280/24/e21 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erwin_Chargaff http://library.thinkquest.org/C0118084/History/Chargaff.htm
13: NATURE | "Live in the sunshine. Swim the sea. Drink the wild air." -Emerson
14: “Without new experiences, something inside of us sleeps. The sleeper must awaken.” – Frank Herbert
17: ADVENTURE | The time to explore is now
18: LIVE LOVE LAUGH | Keep moving forward