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S: Medieval Castles

BC: Delaney Ahn loves playing field hockey She likes to swim and play basketball with her friends. Delaney also loves hanging out with her friends and family. | Alicia Cooperman loves playing field hockey and Kung Fu. She enjoys acting, singing, and dancing, as well. Alicia also likes hanging out with her family and friends(especially Delaney Ahn). | About the Author | Delaney Ahn | Alicia Cooperman

FC: Medieval Castles | By: Alicia Cooperman and Delaney Ahn

1: This book is dedicated to Mrs. Brosky and Miss Torpey for all the help that they gave us.

2: Why Castles Were Built | Castles were built to house kings or lords. They were also made to protect the royalty from calvary charges of knights.

3: What Materials Were Used to Build a Castle | In order to make a castle, there are many materials needed. The most important person involved in the making of a castle is the master mason. *Axes, and chisels were needed to cut stone and carve designs. * Mortar is also needed to hold the stone together. * A few important people needed were carpenters, metal workers, other masons,and a smith. * Ladders, ramps, scaffolding, and a pulley system was also needed.

4: What Life Was Like in a Castle | Castles, unlike what people call them, were far more than military buildings. A king or high-ranking baron would travel around the country lots of times. Most of the castles were homes for the lord and their family. Inside of the castle, as well as outside, the walls would be painted vibrant colors. There were also holes in the halls for | smoke to escape, but there was little ventilation elsewhere. Throughout the castle there would be herbs scattered on the floor. Those who lived in the castle would have a straw mattress to sleep on.

5: The fireplace along with tallow candles were the main light source and the use of stone made it possible for them to build fireplaces and add chimneys. Furniture was a luxury in the medieval times, even for the wealthy. There were beds and chairs but they were very rare. The most important person in a meeting would use a chair, thus being called the "chairperson" as we call some people today. Some basic furniture in the castle would be a chest, where they would keep clothes, valuables, and metal tableware would be stored.

6: Time Line | 1066- The Norman forces invaded England therefore castles started being built. 1140- During this time period many sided castles were being built. 1270- Concentric castles were being built.

7: 1320- The first cannon was constructed in Europe. 1350- Around this time castles started using cannons. 1500- Many castles no longer served as fortified homes except in parts of Europe.

8: Key Structures and Defensive Tactics Used to Protect a Castle | As a defense there would be a wet or dry moat as the first obstacle to overcome when attacking. They would also place a barbican in front of the gatehouse. Along with the last two defensive structures there were drawbridges and portcullis'.In the 14th century keyhole-shaped gun-ports | were administered within castles.The round ports were used for hand guns while the horizontal slots were for small cannons mounted behind the walls.

9: Who Lived in Castles? | A castle held lords, kings, and ladies as well as a community of staff. Some of the staff were constables, who looked after the building, marshals, who were in charge of the horses, and garrisons. | There were also Chamberlains who oversaw food and drinks and the stewards who ran estates and finances. Castles held many people, all of which were an important "tool in the toolbox."

10: Vocabulary | Mason- The most important person involved in building a castle. He instructed everyone where to go and what to do. Lord/Kings- A person who has authority, control, or power over others. Crusades- A military expedition that was controlled by the Christians. The main goal was to get the Holy Land back. Moat- A deep trench that was filled with water surrounding the castle.

11: Feudalism- A system in which vassals were protected by their lords, fiefs worked on land and were required to fight in war. Dungeon- A dark prison cell that was usually underground. It was used to house prisoners. Battering Ram- A military device that was used to knock down walls. Siege- The act of attacking a fortified place in a way to isolate it from supplies. The goal was to capture whatever the soldiers were attacking.

12: What Were in Castles? | There were many rooms and hallways in castles. On the first floor there was usually one main hall. Throughout the rest of the castle there were bedrooms, a kitchen, a chapel, and sometimes dungeons. Outside of the castle there was a moat and a gatehouse.

13: Tuesday, May 17, 1422 | Dear Diary, Today I was walking through town and noticed a handsome young lad. I think that I shall bring him back to our castle, he would be thoroughly impressed and maybe just hopefully it would make him admire me. Something inside of

14: me feels funny. As though butterflies are fluttering around inside my stomach. Oh yes of course the man would love the food from our kitchen and the large hallways. I wish I knew what it was like to live a "normal life" in a "normal home" with plain folk. I have made a sketch of my new man for which I am fond of. I just cannot hold the excitement inside of me any longer!!!

15: The man I will soon betroth. I can feel it in my heart. My sister, Rosemary, felt the same way when she first sought her husband, a strange tingling and churning motion inside of the stomach. Forgive me for I have gone into great detail. Goodnight for now, for we shall talk again tomorrow. Sincerely, Marywether

16: I tried to draw a picture of my beloved, but it doesn't do him justice.

17: Bibliography | Gravett, Christopher. Castle. New York: Knopf, 1994. Print. Harris, Nicholas, and Peter Dennis. Castles through Time. New York: Power Kids, 2009. Print. Sheehan, Sean, and Peter Dennis. Castles. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple Media, 2005. Print.

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