S: Malcolm X
FC: MALCOLM X
1: MALCOLM LITTLE | - Born on May 19, 1925 - Born in Omaha, Nebraska
3: - Mother: Louise Norton Little (homemaker, 8 kids) - Father: Earl Little (Baptist minister, supporter of Black Nationalist leader, Marcus Garvey) > received death threats from a white supremacist organization called Black Legion; caused them to move twice before Malcolm turned 4 > In 1929, their Lansling, Michigan home was burned to the ground by the Black Legion. Two years later, Earl's body was found lying across trolley tracks. - police said the incidents were both accidents - Louise suffered emotional breakdown & eventually was sent to a mental institute - children were split up b/w orphanages and foster homes
4: - smart, focused student - graduated junior high at the top of his class - lost interest in school when his teacher told him that his dream of becoming a lawyer was "no realistic goal for a nigger" - dropped out, moved to Boston, MA then to Harlem, NY where he committed petty crimes - By 1942, he was coordinating several narcotics, prostitution, & gambling rings - In 1946, he was arrested & convicted for burglary and sentenced to jail for 10 yrs (paroled after serving 7 years)
8: NATION OF ISLAM | - Decided to further his education so he went to the Nation of Islam Organization because of his brother Reginald. - Elijah Muhammad, the leader, preached that whites worked to keep African Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and social success. - Paroled in 1952, Malcolm changed "Little" to "X" because he said "Little" was a slave name and "X" symbolized his lost tribal name. - Became a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam > great spokesperson, charisma: drive and conviction > increased number of members from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963.
10: ELIJAH MUHAMMAD AND MALCOLM X
11: - Civil Rights Movement: 1963 > Leader, Elijah Muhammad, was having affairs with 6 women within the Nation of Islam. Some resulted in children. > Malcolm had always looked up to Elijah as a living prophet until now; he was hurt by the fact that Elijah wanted help to cover it up. Malcolm did not help him. > Elijah "silenced" Malcolm for 90 days because of a comment he said about JFK > In March 1964, Malcolm left the NOI, unable to look past Elijah's bad choices, and started his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc.
12: - That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. > he spoke with "blond-haired, blue-eyed men I could call my brothers," said Malcolm. He also learned other cultures and beliefs. - It gave Malcolm a new hope and he soon spoke to all races and not just African Americans.
13: - Relations between Elijah and Malcolm worsened from there. > Undercover FBI agents worked for the NOI and tried to ruin Malcolm X - Malcolm soon had to hire bodyguards to watch him and his family > On February 14, 1965, Malcolm and his family's New York home was burned down > Luckily, his family escaped physical harm - Only a week later were Malcom's enemies successful. On February 21, 1965, Malcolm was shot 15 times at a speaking engagement in Manhattan and killed
15: - 1500 people attended Malcolm X's funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 - Malcolm's assassins were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966. > the three men were members of the NOI - The legacy of Malcolm X has moved on through generations by movies, documentaries, and novels.