FC: River Valley Civilization | Egypt | Mesopotamia | china | Indus | terrence bradley
1: Table of contents: | Page 2,3&4: mesopotamia | Page 4,5&6: Egypt | Page 6,7&8: India | Page 8,9&10: China | Page 11: pictures captions
2: Mesopotamia | - In southern Mesopotamia people first began to settle and farm the flat, swampy lands before 4500 B.C. | The river framing Mesopotamia are the tigris and the Euphrates. | With no natural barriers for protection a Sumerian village was nearly defenseless. | The Babylonian empire reached its peak during the region of Hammurabi, from 1792 B.C. to 1750 B. C. | The word Mesopotamia in Greek means " land between the river".
3: The laws tell us a great deal about the Mesopotamians' beliefs and what they valued. | Thus, Hammurabi's code reinforced the principle that government had a responsibility for what occured in society. | For example, if a man was robbed and the thief was not caught the government was required to compensate the victim.
4: Although the code applied to everyone, it set different punishments for rich and poor and for men and women. | Additionally, the laws sought to protect women and children for unfair treatment. | Egypt | From the highlands of East Africa to the Mediterr. sea, the Nile River flows northward across Africa for over 4100 miles , making it the longest river in the world. | Egypt's settlements arose along the Nile on a narrow strip of land made fertile by the river.
5: Egyptians' farmers were much more fortunate than the villages of Mesopotamia. | Ancient Egyptians lived along the Nile from the mouth well into the interior of Africa. | The Egyptians were not locked into their social classes. | In all, Egyptians worshiped more than 2000 gods and goddesses.
6: Egyptians believed that the Pharaoh bore full responsibility for the kingdoms well-being. | Egyptians doctors knew how to check a person's heart rate by feeling for a pulse in different parts of the body. | Even so, life in Egypt had its risk. | Simple pictographs were the earliest form of writing in Egypt, but scribes quickly developed a flexible writing system called hieroglyphics. | Indus
7: The mountains guard an enormous flat and fertile plain formed by two rivers-the Indus and the Ganges. | The uniformity in the Cities' planning and construction suggests that the Indus peoples had developed a strong Central government. | The toilets were neatly built of brick with a wooden seat. | As with other cultures, the rulers of the Harappaen Civilization are believed to have close ties to religion.
8: Like the other two river valley Civilizations, the Harappan culture developed a written language. | India's housing suggests that social divisions in the society were not great. | Animals are seen on pottery, small statues, children's toys, and seals used to mark trade items. | Archaeologists think that the culture was theoracy. | Furthermore, Harappan agriculture may have suffered as a result of soil that was exhausted by overuse. | India is a subcontinent.
9: China | To China's east lay the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the Pacific Ocean. | When a girl was between 13 and 16 years old, her marriage was arranged, and she moved into the house of her husband. | They goverened the scattered villages within the Shang lands and sent tribute to the Shang ruler in exchange for local control.
10: The Chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good fortune or disaster to living member of the family. | In the Chinese method of writing, each character generally stands for on syllable or unit of language. | The Mandate of Heaven became central to the Chinese view of government. | The very heart of Chinese civilization- love of order, harmony, and respect for authority- had been replaced with caos, arrogance, and defiance. | The Zhou empire was generally peaceful and stable. | As China power grew, these war loads claimed to be king s in their own territory. | The Chinese was divided between noble and peasants.
11: Egypt | Mesopotamia | China | India